GATE 2021: Previous year cut off, Marking scheme, Download admit Card, Syllabus for Life science and Biotechnology

GATE Life science and Biotechnology syllabus

GATE 2021 examination date for Life science and Biotechnology 

GATE 2021 life science and biotech exam date

Downloading Admit Card for GATE 2021

To download the admit card you can click on the mentioned link and type your registered E-mail/Enrollment ID- Click here to download 

Indian candidates should bring with them the printout (preferably coloured) of the admit card along with the original photo identity document like Aadhar, passport, PAN card, voter ID card at the examination centre.

While international candidates must have a passport/government-issued ID/College ID/Employee ID.

Marking scheme for GATE 2021 for life science
GATE Marking scheme Life science

GATE is a computer-based exam. General aptitude and chemistry subjects are compulsory for each candidate, while he or she can choose 2 subjects of their choice from Biochemistry, Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Food technology. There will be a total of 65 questions, 10 from general aptitude while 65 from the remaining part. All questions carry 1 or 2 marks and 0.33 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer of 1 mark while 1.33 mark for each 2 marks question.

Marking scheme for GATE 2021 for Biotechnology

Marking scheme GATE Biotechnology

Previous year cut off has been between 35-40 marks for general candidates, but if you wish to take admission at top IITs than you should aim a bit higher than that. Previously, IIT Delhi conducted the Year 2020 exam and then the highest marks for biotechnology and life sciences were 73.67 and 73.33 respectively.  
 
Syllabus for GATE 2021 Life science

1. Chemistry (Compulsory for all students applying for life science)

Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity  

Planck’s quantum theory, wave-particle duality, uncertainty principle, comparison between Bohr’s model and quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of atoms and ions. Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle. Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity and atomic size. 

Section 2: Structure and Bonding  

Ionic and covalent bonding, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridization, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle). HSAB principle.  

 

Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements

Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S. General characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.  

Section 4: Chemical Equilibria

Osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications. Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.  

Section 5: Electrochemistry  

Conductance, Kohlrausch law, cell potentials, EMF, Nernst equation, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.  

Section 6: Reaction Kinetics  

Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of enzymes. 

Section 7: Thermodynamics  

Qualitative treatment of state and path functions, First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff equation, heat of reaction, Hess’s law, heat of formation. Second law, entropy and free energy. Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation, free energy change and spontaneity, Free energy changes from equilibrium constant. 

 

Section 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms  

Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, Stereochemistry, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1, E2 and radical reactions, Hoffmann/Saytzeff rules, addition reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharasch effect. Elementary hydroboration reactions. Grignard’s reagents and their uses. Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Identification of common functional groups by chemical tests. 

 

Section 9: Chemistry of Biomolecules 

Amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides. Peptide sequencing by chemical and enzymatic proteolytic methods. DNA sequencing by chemical and enzymatic methods. Carbohydrates (upto hexoses only). Lipids (triglycerides only). Principles of biomolecule Purification-Ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography.  Identification of these biomolecules and Beer-Lambert’s law.

2. Biochemistry (Optional)

Section 1:

Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids; Protein structure, folding / misfolding and function; Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. 

Section 2: 

Enzyme kinetics, regulation and inhibition; Vitamins and Coenzymes; Bioenergetics and metabolism; Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism; Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle. 

Section 3: 

Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, centrifugation; Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis; DNA- protein and protein– protein interactions; UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy; Mass spectrometry. 

Section 4: 

Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Action potential; Transport across membranes; Membrane assembly and Protein targeting; Signal transduction; Receptor-ligand interaction; Hormones and neurotransmitters. 

Section 5: 

DNA replication, transcription and translation; DNA damage and repair; Biochemical regulation of gene expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis, DNA-microarray; Next generation sequencing; Gene silencing and editing. 

Section 6: 

Immune system: Innate and adaptive; Cell of the immune system; Active and passive immunity; Complement system; Antibody structure, function and diversity; B cell and T Cell receptors; B cell and T cell activation; Major histocompatibilty complex; Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immune-electrophoresis, RIA and ELISA, flow cytometry; monoclonal antibodies and their applications.

3. Botany (Optional)

Section 1: Plant Systematics 

Botanical nomenclature, history of plant taxonomy, diversity and classification of plants, APG system of plant classification; phylogenetics and cladistics, molecular taxonomy and DNA barcoding; Centers for plant taxonomy and herbaria in India. 

Section 2: Plant Anatomy 

Anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral organs, embryo and young seedlings, Primary and secondary meristems,stellar organization, vascular system and their ontogeny, xylem and phloem structure, secondary growth in plants  and wood anatomy, plant cell structure and differences from animal cells.  

Section 3: Plant development; cell and tissue morphogenesis 

Life cycle of an angiosperm, development of male and female gametophyte; cell fate determination and tissue patterning; spacing mechanisms in trichomes and stomata. Embryogenesis, organization and function of shoot and root apical meristems. Transition to flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, ABC model of floral organ patterning, pollen germination, double fertilization, seed development; Xylem and phloem cell differentiation, photomorphogenesis; phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin. Role of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids on plant development. 

Section 4: Plant physiology and biochemistry 

Plant water relations, mechanisms of uptake and transport of water, ions, solutes from soil to plants, apoplastic and symplastic transport mechanisms. Mechanism of stomatal movements, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis; C3, C4 and CAM cycles, photorespiration, respiration: glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain. Plant responses and mechanisms of abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, freezing and heat stress, metal toxicity; role of abscisic acid in abiotic stresses. Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics. Structure and biosynthesis of major plant secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids). Biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acids, brassinosteroid, ethylene, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic and jasmonic acid.  Senescence and programmed cell death. 

Section 5: Genetics and genomics 

Cell cycle and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; Introduction to epigenetics; gene silencing- transgene silencing, post transcriptional gene silencing, miRNA and siRNA; evolution and organization of eukaryotic genome structure, gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical: euploidy and aneuploidy and structural: deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation), transposons. Model organisms for functional genetics and genomics; Introduction to transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. 

Section 6: Plant Breeding, Genetic Modification, Genome Editing 

Principles, methods– selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers,  embryo rescue, haploid and doubled haploids, plant tissue culture: micropropagation, embryo culture and in vitro  regeneration, somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, cryopreservation, somaclonal variation, somatic cell  hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, generation of  transgenic plants; Introduction to genome editing: CRISPR/Cas9, Cre-Lox system to generate chimeras; plastid  transformation; chemical mutagenesis. 

Section 7: Economic and applied Botany 

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria. Major Indian cash crops. Effect of industrialization on agricultural botany such as plastic on fiber economy. Genetically modified crops and its regulation eg. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal golden rice etc. 

Section 8: Plant Pathology 

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses, and their control measures (chemical and biological) mechanism(s) of pathogenesis, resistance: basal, systemic, induced systemic resistance, gene for gene concept. Molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe interactions: symbionts and mycorrhiza, pathogens and pests. Signaling pathways in plant defence response; salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in plant-pathogen and plant-herbivore interaction, necrosis; host 

parasitic plant interaction (such as Cuscuta). 

Section 9: Ecology and Environment 

Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, biogeochemical cycles, ecological succession; food webs and energy flow through ecosystem; vegetation types of the world, Indian vegetation types and biogeographical zones, climate and flora endemism; pollution and global climate change, speciation and extinction, biodiversity and conservation strategies, ecological hotspots, afforestation, habitat restoration; plant interactions with other organisms; epiphytes, parasites and endophytes.

 4. Zoology (Optional)

Section 1: Animal Diversity 

Distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships (based on classical and molecular phylogenetic tools). 

Section 2: Evolution 

Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation. 

Section 3: Genetics 

Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics, genetic disorders, roles of model organisms in understanding genetic principles. 

Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 

Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation, Krebs cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, roles of vitamins and minerals. 

Section 5: Cell Biology 

Basic principles of cellular microscopy, structure of cell, cytoskeletal organization, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure. 

Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes 

Eukaryotic genome organization and regulation of gene expression, transposable elements. 

Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology 

Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, Muscular system, circulatory system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system. 

Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology 

Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response. 

Section 9: Development Biology 

Gametogenesis, Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, Model organisms used in developmental biology, genetic and molecular basis of development, stem cells. 

Section 10: Ecology 

The ecosystem, Animal distribution, ecological niche and its contribution to ecological diversity, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogeography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology, ecotoxicology. 

Section 11: Animal Behaviour 

Type of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of behavior in animals.

 5. Microbiology (Optional)

Section 1: Historical Perspective 

Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases. 

Section 2: Methods in Microbiology 

Pure culture techniques; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; antigen and antibody detection methods for microbial diagnosis; Light-, phase contrast-, fluorescence- and electron-microscopy; PCR, real-time PCR for quantitation of microbes; Next generation sequencing technologies in microbiology. 

Section 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity 

Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy and phylogeny. 

Section 4: Prokaryotic Cells: Structure and Function 

Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes and their biosynthesis, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Bacterial locomotion, including positive and negative chemotaxis. 

Section 5: Microbial Growth 

Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth; Bacterial biofilm and biofouling. 

Section 6: Control of Micro-organisms  

Disinfection and sterilization: principles, methods and assessment of efficacy. 

Section 7: Microbial Metabolism 

Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The  citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin  cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino  acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways. 

Section 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction 

Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Opportunistic infections; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; passive  immunization; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi. 

Section 9: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics 

General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification molecular mechanism of mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs. 

Section 10: Microbial Genetics 

Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference  to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; mutation in virus genomes, virus recombination and  reassortment; Basic concept of microbial genomics.

Section 11: Microbial Ecology 

Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants; Bioremediation; Uncultivable microorganisms; basic concept of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

 6. Food Technology (Optional)

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition 

Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly- saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles. Lipids:  classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines. Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non- enzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during differentprocessing. 

Section 2: Food Microbiology 

Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shebelle, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillums genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idly, dose, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage. 

Section 3: Food Products Technology 

Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods. Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization:  pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, A-Mark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP). 

Section 4: Food Engineering 

Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Flick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations:  thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychometric, humidification and dehumidificationoperations.

Syllabus for GATE 2021 Biotechnology

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

1. Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

2. Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives, maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence.

3. Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms.

4. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

5. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single step method for differential equations.

Section 2: General Biology

1. Biochemistry: Biomolecules – structure and function; Biological membranes – structure, membrane channels and pumps, molecular motors, action potential and transport processes; Basic concepts and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids; Photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain. Enzymes – Classification, catalytic and regulatory strategies; Enzyme kinetics – Michaelis-Menten equation; Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition.

2. Microbiology: Bacterial classification and diversity; Microbial Ecology – microbes in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems; Microbial interactions; Viruses – structure and classification; Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interactions; Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance.

3. Immunology: Innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; T cell and B cell development; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organs; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction; Immunization and vaccines.

Section 3: Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology

1. Genetics and Evolutionary Biology: Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics – transformation, transduction and conjugation; Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements; Chromosomal variation; Genetic disorders; Population genetics; Epigenetics; Selection and inheritance; Adaptive and neutral evolution; Genetic drift; Species and speciation.

2. Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-cell communication; Cell signaling and signal transduction; Post-translational modifications; Protein trafficking; Cell death and autophagy; Extra-cellular matrix.

3. Molecular Biology: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Regulation of gene expression; Nucleic acid – replication, transcription, splicing, translation and their regulatory mechanisms; Non-coding and micro RNA; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair.

Section 4: Fundamentals of Biological Engineering

1. Engineering principles applied to biological systems: Material and energy balances for reactive and non-reactive systems; Recycle, bypass and purge processes; Stoichiometry of growth and product formation; Degree of reduction, electron balance, theoretical oxygen demand.

2. Classical thermodynamics and Bioenergetics: Laws of thermodynamics; Solution thermodynamics; Phase equilibria, reaction equilibria; Ligand binding; Membrane potential; Energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation and reduction reactions.

3. Transport Processes: Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, fluid flow – laminar and turbulent; Mixing in bioreactors, mixing time; Molecular diffusion and film theory; Oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement; Conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient; Heat exchangers.

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

1. Bioreaction engineering: Rate law, zero and first order kinetics; Ideal reactors – batch, mixed flow and plug flow; Enzyme immobilization, diffusion effects – Thiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkoehler number; Kinetics of cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Structured and unstructured models; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Microbial and enzyme reactors; Optimization and scale up.

2. Upstream and Downstream Processing: Media formulation and optimization; Sterilization of air and media; Filtration – membrane filtration, ultrafiltration; Centrifugation – high speed and ultra; Cell disruption; Principles of chromatography – ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC and FPLC; Extraction, adsorption and drying.

3. Instrumentation and Process Control: Pressure, temperature and flow measurement devices; Valves; First order and second order systems; Feedback and feed forward control; Types of controllers – proportional, derivative and integral control, tuning of controllers.

Section 6: Plant, Animal and Microbial Biotechnology

1. Plants: Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system – methodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites; Hairy root culture; Plant products of industrial importance; Artificial seeds; Somaclonal variation; Protoplast, protoplast fusion – somatic hybrid and cybrid; Transgenic plants – direct and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; Selection marker and reporter gene; Plastid transformation.

2. Animals: Culture media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals; Knock-out and knock-in animals.

3. Microbes: Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites – Biofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; Clinical-, food- and industrial- microbiology; Screening strategies for new products.

Section 7: Recombinant DNA technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology

1. Recombinant DNA technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors – plasmids, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes; Expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation and cloning, strategies for production of recombinant proteins; Transposons and gene targeting.

2. Molecular tools: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA/RNA labelling and sequencing; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; CRISPR-Cas; Biosensing and biosensors.

3. Analytical tools: Principles of microscopy – light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Principles of spectroscopy- UV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FT-IR, MS, NMR; Electrophoresis; Micro-arrays; Enzymatic assays; Immunoassays – ELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry; immunoblotting; Flow cytometry; Whole genome and ChIP sequencing.

4. Computational tools: Bioinformatics resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis – sequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment, phylogeny; Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; Gene prediction; Functional annotation; Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; Knowledge discovery in biochemical databases; Metagenomics; Metabolic engineering and systems biology.


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