This contains old ncert class 11 biology chapters pdf to download for students

Download old NCERT biology book chapters pdf for class 11

Download Old NCERT Biology Book chapters pdf for class 11 Current reduced NCERT class 11th biology syllabus for 2023 includes only 19 chapters along with some deleted topics. However, the old NCERT biology book had 22 chapters. At present we cannot say which syllabus will hold true for NEET preparation as NTA hasn’t declared the syllabus for NEET 2023. Students who want to go through the previous/old syllabus can download class 11 old NCERT biology chapters from below. Extra topics/questions in old NCERT chapter-1 as compared to reduced 2023-2024 syllabus are mentioned below. Download old ncert biology book chapter-1 The Living World from below. Extra topics/questions in old NCERT chapter-2 as compared to reduced 2023-2024 syllabus are mentioned below. All topics/questions are same in both old and new NCERT syllabus for chapter-2 biological classification. Download old ncert biology book chapter-2 Biological classification from below.

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writing speculative job application.

5 Amazing tips for writing speculative job application (with example)

1. Shortlist potential employers If you are looking for experience/jobs within a specific location or sector, you need to look up employersin these areas using resources such as, google, employer directories, professional bodies and LinkedIn. Consider the size of the employer too, it is always worth checking what they already offer – if they offerinternships or have a work experience scheme already (more likely in larger employers), they areunlikely to offer further opportunities and so applying speculatively would be a waste of time. 2. Do your research Research is key to effective speculative job application, as you will need to tailor your applications. You’ll need to find out further details about the employer and be able give a few reasons for why youwant to gain experience/work with them. In order to do this you will need to have a thorough look attheir website. It can be useful to look at an employer’s current vacancies. You can get a feel for the what the employervalues, as well as skills/attributes they like to see in candidates. 3. Get the name of an individual Finding a named contact is the number one rule of making a speculative job application. You will vastlyincrease the likely success of your speculative applications by addressing your speculative applicationsto a named contact – if you can’t find the name and e-mail address online (on LinkedIn, for example),call the employer to find out who to contact. Picking up the phone can be daunting, but by picking up the phone you are likely to be demonstratingsome of the attributes that the employer values, which can make a good impression. Make a note ofquestions you want to ask and practice your opening introduction if you are nervous. One can find the e-mail address of a professional using this website called hunter. 4. Tailor your speculative job application Based on your research of the employer and the skills you think they would find attractive, you shouldbe able to put together a CV and covering letter that is tailored towards the needs of the employer. Make sure you make it clear what you have to offer, and what is in it for the employer – emphasise what you can do for the employer rather than what you want from them. Make it clear what skills, knowledge and abilities and experience you have. Be clear on what you’re asking for. This makes it easy for the individual reading your application toknow exactly where they could make best use of you. If you’re too general and vague, this can be off-putting. If you’re looking for experience and not 100% sure what you are looking for, try to focus onyour areas of interest and things you’d like to have experience of. In your covering letter, mention youravailability and/or any other constraints. If you have got the person’s name as a result of a contact made from a phone call or a careers fair, forexample, then state this early in your letter. 5. Politely follow up To improve your chances of success, follow up your speculative application with a phone call four orfive working days later. You will get rejections, but even if the employer cannot help with your mainrequest, talking enables you to explore if there are any future opportunities coming up, how theorganisation typically recruits and where you should look out for their job adverts. Don’t take any rejections personally, move on to the next employer and keep the momentum going. Example speculative job application Dear Hiring Manager, I am writing to express my strong interest in the Research Assistant position in the field of microbiology at [company name]. Although I am aware that there may not be any current openings, I would like to submit my application for consideration in the event that a suitable position becomes available in the future. As a recent graduate in Microbiology with a [degree/qualification], I have developed a strong foundation in the principles and techniques of microbiology research. During my academic career, I have gained experience in laboratory techniques such as [list relevant techniques], which I believe would be valuable in a research assistant role. In addition, I have also completed [relevant coursework/project/internship] which provided me with a deeper understanding of microbiology research, and the importance of accurate data analysis and interpretation. I have excellent analytical skills and attention to detail, and I am comfortable working with statistical software programs such as [list programs]. I am excited about the possibility of joining your team and contributing to the advancement of microbiology research. I am drawn to [company’s area of research/strengths], and I am impressed by the dedication and expertise of the research team at [company name]. Thank you for considering my application, and I look forward to the opportunity to discuss my qualifications further. Sincerely,[Your Name] Find A Job – TheBiologyBro

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tips to write cover letter for job application

101 Strategy to write best cover letter for job application (with example cover letter)

Getting them to read your cover letter for job application An effective and focused covering letter is an integral part of many application processes and you willcertainly use one if you are applying by CV. The idea is that a persuasive covering letter introduces yourCV and says why you want to work for that employer and what you have to offer. Writing, “I would like to apply for a role with your organisation and I enclose (or attach) my CV” is notgoing to get you anywhere. Fortunately, the rules of writing a good cover letter for job application are not complicated. There is also no such thing as a ‘generic cover letter’ as your cover letter should be personalised and tailored to each company and role you apply for. In this, article we will explore how you can write best cover letter for job application with few demo cover letters. Top Tips to write cover letter for job application Section 1 – Context for cover letter for job application Say how you heard about the vacancy. Did you see it advertised through their website, LinkedIn, job sites? Did you hear about it at a recruitment fair? Did someone they would know recommend that you contact them? Section 2 – Why are you applying for this position? It’s crucial to explain why you are interested in working for them. It’s not enough to put a formulaicreason such as, “I want to work for a reputable organisation with an international profile.”. You need tobe specific about the company / role. “I want to work with Toyota because I know that you have increased your share of the UK carmarket by 6% over the last four years and that you will shortly bring on a new range of modelsbased on your new lean-burn engine. You have manufacturing agreements with firms in Polandand Brazil and all this suggests a successful operation that I would like to contribute to.” Have an in-depth look at the company website to see details of recent projects and clients and to seewhat their values are as an organisation. Background research is easy with larger firms – as well asGoogle the business pages of the Independent, Guardian and Daily Telegraph can provide real insights.You could also include your personal knowledge of the company; what does the brand mean to you?What has inspired you about this company? If you have met anyone from the company, you couldexplain what you have learnt from them. Use your research to show why you want to work there. Section 3 – What can you offer them? You also need to say what you can offer them. In order to do this, you should use the job advert toidentify what they are looking for and then give evidence of your relevant key selling points for the role.These will be four or five personal qualities or periods of relevant experience. These qualities have tobe genuine and should reflect what is on your CV. You need to express your key selling points in clearand enthusiastic language. Section 4 – Positive and professional sign off End your letter on a positive note and say when you will be available for interview. Usually at any timebut you may have dates when you can’t attend because of exams. Finish with “Yours sincerely” if youhave written to a named person or “Yours faithfully” if not. Don’t end with simply “Yours” or “Yourstruly.” Before you send it: • Check the spelling and grammar – many rejected applications result from basic mistakes in thecovering letter• Read it out loud to see if it flows well• Ask somebody else to read it for a second opinion• Check your whole application against the job advert – have you included everything they haveasked for?• Read the instructions – make sure you are sending it to the right person in the right format. Demo Cover letter for job application- Example cover letter-1 Shangharsh Sinha21 Moor RoadUnited KingdomM: 07896 20120403Email: Ms Julie Hemingway, Head of DesignHiTech Design SolutionsOldham RoadManchester 24 February 2023 Dear Ms Hemingway, I am writing to apply for your Assistant Product Designer post, which was advertised on theNottingham Trent University Employability Team’s website. I first became aware of HiTech Solutions at Nottingham Trent University’s Recruitment Fair in March2022 and I was impressed with both the company profile and the staff on the stand. My subsequentresearch introduced me to the innovative display designs you have produced for clients such as MaxFactor, Rimmel and Maybelline and the Gold Award you gained at the 2014 InternationalMerchandising Exhibition in Barcelona. The HiTech website emphasises customer focus and improving quality and efficiency. My degree inProduct Design offers a firm foundation of theory and practice and my final year dissertationexamined developments in high street displays. I am also a keen reader of the financial press andaware of current trends and developments within the retail sector. I believe that commercial designcan only flourish if it meets customer needs. My CV shows the range of roles I have undertaken which require high-level communication,interpersonal and interpretive skills. This is best demonstrated by my successful completion of a 6-month work placement at Design Nation, Leicester where I performed precise and exacting tasks ina fast-paced working environment with a very demanding customer base. I believe the ability to build and maintain productive relationships with clients and colleagues is keyskill that I can bring to the role of Assistant Product Designer. While the advertisement for the post states that Maths at ‘A’ level would be an advantage, I believethat my grade A at GCSE Maths demonstrates both an aptitude and practical number ability whichwould be an asset to HiTech. I hope that after reading my CV, you will recognise my potential to perform well and to make a realcontribution to your organisation. I can be available for interview at any time. I look forward tohearing from you. Yours sincerely,Shangharsh Sinha Demo Cover letter for job application- Example cover letter-2 Kamal Pandey21 Moor RoadHaldwaniM: 07896 20120403Email:

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How to write personal statement for resume, college

How to write best personal statement for resume/college application 2023

What is a personal statement? A personal statement is a succinct description of their credentials, abilities, and experience one may be asked to submit as part of an application for postgraduate study or a job. It serves to emphasize your accomplishments and persuade the employer that you are a suitable fit for the position. It is typically included with your resume or curriculum vitae. Each statement will need to be different depending on the course or role you are applying to. How is cover letter for job application written? Personal statements for college Details of the requirements for the personal statement for college will appear either in the personal statement heading section or in the guidance notes which accompany the application form. You usually need to explain your motivations and suitability for the course, and to demonstrate your research andunderstanding of the course you are applying for. Personal statements for resume This is likely to be part of a more extensive application form. They may ask a specific question, e.g.“Describe how your skills and experience make you a suitable candidate for this role”, or may leavethis more vague, e.g. “Tell us about yourself”. Either way you need to use this to demonstrate whyyou are a good candidate by explaining how you meet the job requirements. What to include? There is no set structure for a personal statement. However, the following questions may help you toshape your statement: Why are you applying? You need to demonstrate that you have a clear and well-informed understanding of what theopportunity is, and provide specific reasons as to why you are applying. • Personal statement for college: Why do you want to study at this particular university: is the department well known for its expertise in this course area or have you any other reasons for choosing this university? Why do you want to study this program: is the program noted for a particularemphasis, specialty or orientation, what do you like about the content of the course? • Personal statement for resume: Why are you applying for this role: what do you like about the job description, and what attracts you to work in this field? Why are you interested in working for this company? What impresses you about what they do, what personal experience do you have of theircompany, what do you like about their values and mission statement? What relevant experience do you have? Make sure you’ve researched what is required for the opportunity and detail any relevant experienceyou have. This could include a wide range of experience, for example: work experience (voluntary orpaid), previous study, extra-curricular achievements. • Personal statement for college: Is your previous degree relevant and how has it prepared you for thiscourse? What have you learned in your university studies so far that would transfer to thiscourse? If appropriate, write about any projects, dissertations or extended essays you’ve done ifthey are relevant or demonstrate relevant skills.• Personal statement for resume: How has your previous work experience (or academic study) prepared you for work in this field? Look at the duties outlined in the job description – have you done any ofthese before? What transferable experience/skills do you have? As well as your relevant experience it’s important to include evidence of your transferable skills andpersonal qualities that will make you a suitable candidate for the course or position. • Personal statement for college: if they have not provided any criteria for your skills/personal qualities then consider what would make somebody a successful student on the course. Many postgraduatecourses will expect students to have good time-management skills, high levels of criticalthinking, excellent written communication skills and to be able to work independently. • Personal statement for resume: use the person specification/job description to identify which skills and attributes are required for this specific role. Some companies will also have core competenciesfor the organisation – research the ‘careers’ pages on their website to find out more. How does the opportunity fit your career/academic objectives? You may not have a clear, long-term career idea, but you should be able to demonstrate how theopportunities will progress your personal, professional and/or academic development. • Personal statement for college: you may not have a specific focus on what you want to do afterwards, but you should have some general ideas as to how the course will help your personal andprofessional goals. Explain how this particular course will help you in your career or futureplans. • Personal statement for resume: you could explain how this role fits into your current/long-term career plans. However, make sure you still appear committed to this role – the focus should be on how therole advertised will help your professional development. Tips for writing your personal statement for resume/college

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CUET Exam last date, eligibility, universities.

CUET exam 2023 UG last date, admit card

The Ministry of Education is launching the Common University Entrance Test (CUET exam 2023 UG) for all undergraduate programs offered by Central Universities for the 2023-24 academic year. The purpose of the test is to create a level playing field and equal opportunities for candidates from different regions, particularly those from rural or remote areas. The single entrance examination will allow candidates to have a wider reach and be considered for admission to multiple Central Universities. CUET Exam 2023 UG Highlights Name of the exam Common University Entrance Test (CUET) Exam conducting Authority National Testing Agency Mode of application Online Official website Level of exam National Total participating universities 90 (44 central universities, 46 other universities) Mode of exam Computer-based test Question type Multiple Choice Questions Exam duration Slot 1 – 45 to 195 minutes Slot 2 – 45 to 225 minutes Slot 3 – To be notified Medium of exam 13 languages Exam centres 489 in India, 9 outside India CUET Exam 2023 UG Highlights Important deadlines- CUET Exam 2023 UG last date CUET exam 2023 application form date 09 February 2023 CUET exam 2023 UG last date to apply 12 March 2023 Correction in Particulars 15 March to 18 March 2023 (Up to 11:50 P.M.) Announcement of the City of Examination 30 April 2023 Downloading of Admit Cards from the NTA website Second week of the May 2023 Date of Examination 21 May 2023 to 31 May 2023 (Reserve dates: 01 to 07 June 2023) Display of Recorded Responses and Answer Keys To be announced later on the website Declaration of Result on the NTA website To be announced later on the website Website(s), CUET Exam 2023 UG last date Scheme of CUET Exam 2023 UG Section Subjects/ Tests Questions to beAttempted Section 1A –Languages There are 13 different languages. Any ofthese languages may be chosen. 40 questions to beattempted out of 50 in each language. Section 1B –Languages There are 20 Languages. Any of theselanguages may be chosen. 40 questions to beattempted out of 50 in each language. Section 2 –Domain There are 27 Domains specific subjects (list given below) being offered under this section. A candidate may choose any subject as desired by theapplicable University/ Universities. 35/40 Questions to beattempted out of 45/50. Section 3 –General Test For any such undergraduate programme/programmes being offered by Universitieswhere a General Test is being used foradmission. 50 Questions to beattempted out of 60 Scheme of CUET Exam 2023 Syllabus for CUET Exam 2023 UG Language syllabus for CUET exam 2023 UG– Language to be tested through Reading Comprehension (based on different types of passages–Factual, Literary and Narrative, and Literary Aptitude and Vocabulary. Domain Subject syllabus for CUET exam 2023 UG- Download domain subject syllabus General Test syllabus for CUET exam 2023 UG- General Knowledge, Current Affairs, General Mental Ability, Numerical Ability, Quantitative Reasoning (Simple application of basic mathematical concepts arithmetic/algebra geometry/mensuration/stat),Logical and Analytical Reasoning CUET Exam 2023 Syllabus CUET Application Fees 2023 No. of subjects  General (UR)  OBC (NCL)/EWS  SC/ST/PwBD/Third gender  Upto 03 Subjects  ₹ 750/-  ₹ 700/-  ₹ 650/-  Upto 07 Subjects  ₹ 1500/-  ₹ 1400/-  ₹ 1300/-  Upto 10 Subjects  ₹ 1750/-  ₹ 1650/-  ₹ 1550/-  * NCL: Non-Creamy Layer ** EWS: Economically Weaker Section CUET Exam 2023 UG Admit Card The National Testing Agency will make the CUET admit cards available on the official website in the second week of May. To obtain the admit card, candidates must log in with their CUET application ID and password. The admit card will contain important information such as the exam center location, date, and time, as well as instructions. It is crucial that candidates print a copy of the admit card and keep it secure until the admission process is finished. Participating Universities in CUET Exam 2023 UG A total of 90 universities, made up of 44 central universities and 46 state, deemed, and private universities, are participating in CUET 2023. The scores from the CUET UG exams will be accepted by all of these universities for admission into various CUET programs. These programs include undergraduate courses such as B.A., B.Com, B.Sc, BBA, BCA, and integrated postgraduate courses. The number of seats available for each course in each college will vary. A list of all participating central universities can be found below. Central Universities Courses offered Jawaharlal Nehru University B.A. (Hons.) Persian, B.A. (Hons.) Pashto, B.A. (Hons.) Arabic, B.A. (Hons.) Japanese, B.A. (Hons.) Korean, B.A. (Hons.) Chinese, B.A. (Hons.) French, B.A. (Hons.) German, B.A. (Hons.) Spanish, B.Sc.-M.Sc. Integrated Programme in Ayurveda Biology, B.A. (Hons.) Russian, Mahatma Gandhi Central University University of Hyderabad University of Delhi Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University Visva-Bharati University University of Allahabad Tezpur University Central University of Odisha Pondicherry University English and Foreign Languages University Maulana Azad National Urdu University Tripura University Mizoram University National Sanskrit University North Eastern Hill University Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri National Sanskrit University Sikkim University Manipur University Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya The Indira Gandhi National Tribal University Central University of Himachal Pradesh Central University of Kashmir Central University of Jammu Central University of Haryana Central University of South Bihar Central University of Karnataka Central University of Rajasthan Central University of Jharkhand Central University of Kerala Central University of Andhra Pradesh Central University of Gujarat Aligarh Muslim University Central University of Tamil Nadu List of central universities participating in cuet exam 2023 UG

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5 Reasons why biotechnology and microbiology students struggle for a job in India

5 Reasons why biotechnology and microbiology students struggle for a job in India

The Indian biotechnology industry has seen rapid growth in recent years, with the sector expected to reach $100 billion by 2025. Careers in biotechnology and microbiology have the potential to be rewarding and impactful, but in India, many biotechnology and microbiology students are facing challenges in finding success in their field. In this article, we will explore some of the reasons why careers in biotechnology and microbiology are failing in India and the challenges faced by biotechnology students. Lack of Practical Experience Many biotechnology and microbiology students enter the field with unrealistic expectations about the job market. One of the main challenges facing biotechnology students in India is a lack of practical experience. Many students enter the field with a strong theoretical knowledge of biotechnology and microbiology, but lack hands-on laboratory experience. This can make it difficult for them to find employment, as many employers are looking for candidates with practical skills and experience. Additionally, the academic curriculum of many biotechnology programs in India may not provide enough practical training or internship opportunities for students to gain real-world experience. This can make it challenging for biotechnology graduates to stand out from the crowd and attract the attention of potential employers. Competition and Overpopulation Another challenge facing biotechnology students in India is the high level of competition and overpopulation. With so many people competing for jobs, it can be difficult for biotechnology graduates to stand out and attract the attention of potential employers. Additionally, the overpopulation in India has made it more challenging for students to find employment in biotechnology, as there are simply more people competing for fewer jobs. Lack of Industry-Academia Collaboration A lack of collaboration between industry and academia can also contribute to the challenges faced by biotechnology students in India. In many cases, there may not be a strong relationship between universities and biotechnology companies, which can limit the number of job opportunities available to students. Additionally, many biotechnology companies may not have the resources or funding to provide internships or other training opportunities for students, which can further widen the gap between academia and industry. Inadequate Funding for Research The lack of adequate funding for biotechnology research in India is another factor that can contribute to the difficulty that biotechnology students face in finding success in their careers. Many companies may not have the resources to invest in new research initiatives, which can limit the number of job opportunities available to students. Additionally, the lack of funding for research can also make it more difficult for biotechnology and microbiology students to gain practical experience, as they may not have access to state-of-the-art equipment and technology. Low Salary Packages for Biotechnology and Microbiology Students Low salary packages for biotechnology and microbiology students in India can also be a significant challenge. With a large pool of biotechnology graduates, employers may not need to offer high salaries to attract candidates, which can result in lower salary packages. This can make it more difficult for biotechnology graduates to find success in their careers and may cause some to consider leaving the field altogether. Conclusion Careers for biotechnology and microbiology students have the potential to be impactful and rewarding, but many biotechnology students in India are facing significant challenges in finding success in their field. These challenges include a lack of practical experience, competition, overpopulation, a lack of industry-academia collaboration, inadequate funding for research, and low salary packages. To address these challenges and ensure the success of biotechnology and microbiology graduates in India, there needs to be a closer collaboration between industry and academia, increased funding for biotechnology research, and a focus on providing students with practical experience and training opportunities. Frequently asked questions Dear readers, if you have a passion for writing and a strong knowledge in any life science specific topic/niche, we would love to publish your content on our website.

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pros and cons of pursuing a career in life science.

10 Must-know pros and cons of pursuing a career in life science

Is life science a good career? The field of life science is a rapidly growing and exciting area of research that offers numerous benefits to those who pursue a career within it. Whether you’re interested in biochemistry, genetics, or another area of life science, this field is full of opportunities for growth, innovation, and making a real difference in the world. In this article, we will explore some of the pros and cons of pursuing a career in life science. Opportunities for Making a Difference One of the biggest benefits of a career in life science is the opportunity to make a real impact in the world. Scientists working in this field are dedicated to uncovering the mysteries of the human body and improving the quality of life for people everywhere. Whether you’re conducting research in a lab, participating in clinical trials, or developing new technologies, your work in life science has the potential to change lives and make the world a better place. Career Advancement and Growth Another major benefit of pursuing a career in life science is the opportunity for growth and advancement. As the demand for highly skilled and knowledgeable life scientists continues to grow, new opportunities are constantly emerging for professionals to advance their careers and take on new and exciting roles. This means increased job security, higher salaries, and opportunities for professional development. Fulfilling Personal Experience A career in life science can also be a highly fulfilling personal experience. Scientists in this field are passionate about their work, and the satisfaction of making a real contribution to scientific knowledge is unmatched. Whether you’re working on a small project or making a major discovery, you can take pride in knowing that you’re making a difference. Collaboration and Teamwork Another advantage of a career in life science is the opportunity for collaboration and teamwork. Many life scientists work in teams, sharing ideas and expertise with one another. This collaborative environment provides opportunities for professional growth, as you learn from your colleagues and develop new skills and knowledge. Creativity and Innovation Finally, pursuing a career in life science can be a highly creative and innovative experience. Scientists in this field are always pushing the boundaries of what is possible, and being a part of this exciting and forward-thinking environment can be incredibly motivating. Whether you’re developing new treatments for diseases or creating new technologies, you have the chance to be at the forefront of scientific progress. In conclusion, the benefits of pursuing a career in life science are numerous and varied. Whether you’re interested in making a difference, advancing your career, or simply following your passion, a career in life science is an excellent choice. If you’re interested in learning more about this exciting field, visit the National Institute of Health’s website for additional information and resources. Cons of Pursuing a career in life science Pursuing a career in life science can be a challenging and rewarding experience, but it is important to consider the potential drawbacks of this field. Competition for Jobs Despite the growing job market in life science, there is also a high level of competition for jobs, especially in the field of research. The demand for skilled professionals in this field has increased, but the number of positions available may not be enough to meet the demand. This can make it difficult for job seekers to find a position, especially if they do not have a strong background in the field or a unique skill set. One can find job opportunities in the field of life science on our website for free. Long Hours and Intense Workload Life science can be a demanding field, with long hours and a high level of intensity. Researchers are expected to work long days, including weekends and holidays, to meet project deadlines and make breakthrough discoveries. The intense workload can be draining, both physically and mentally, and can lead to burnout and stress. Uncertain Career Path The career path in life science can be uncertain, especially for those in research. Funding for research projects can be unpredictable, and funding cuts can lead to the loss of jobs and the need to move from one project to another. Additionally, the success rate for obtaining grants and contracts can be low, leading to a lack of job security. Rigorous Work Environment Life science can be a rigorous work environment, with high expectations and a focus on producing results. There is often pressure to produce results quickly and efficiently, which can lead to a high level of stress and competition among colleagues. This can create a stressful and competitive atmosphere, where people are focused on their own goals rather than working together as a team. Ethical Considerations A career in life science also raises ethical considerations, especially in the areas of genetics and biotechnology. There are often ethical and moral questions to consider, such as the use of animal testing and the use of genetic modification. These issues can be controversial and divisive, and can create conflict in the workplace and in society as a whole. In conclusion, a career in life science can be rewarding and fulfilling, but it is important to consider the potential challenges and drawbacks as well. The intense workload, competition for jobs, and high cost of education can all make this a challenging field to pursue. Additionally, the uncertain career path and ethical considerations can raise serious concerns for some people. It is important to carefully weigh the pros and cons before making a decision about pursuing a career in life science.

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indias first grass conservatory

Hill station in Almora district gets India’s first grass conservatory

On Sunday, November 14, 2021, India’s first grass conservatory, with a two-acre footprint, opened in Ranikhet, Almora district of Uttarakhand. The conservatory was built in three years by the Uttarakhand Forest Department’s research arm with funding from the Central Government’s CAMPA scheme. What is a grass conservatory? In the protection area, almost 90 different grass species of major scientific, ecological, medicinal, and cultural importance have been grown. There are seven different types of grass species in the protected area, including those used for fragrant, medicinal, feed, ornamental, agricultural, and religious purposes. The project’s goal is to raise awareness about grass species’ value, encourage their protection, and make field research easier. What is the need for grass conservatory? It’s also crucial because grasslands are under assault from a variety of sources, and their acreage is declining, putting an entire ecosystem of insects, birds, and mammals that rely on them in jeopardy. Because of their nutritious grain and soil-forming function, grasses are the most economically important of all flowering plants. The endeavour is significant since recent research has shown that grasslands are more effective at ‘carbon sequestration’ than forest areas. Thysanolaena, popularly known as Tiger grass or Broom grass, is a valuable fodder grass found in Uttarakhand along steep slopes, ravines, and sandy riverbanks up to an elevation of 2000 metres. Broom is made from its dry blooming stocks. Because it is a perennial species, it can be utilised as green fodder all year. It also aids in soil erosion prevention on steep hillsides and is employed in land restoration. Pennisetum Purpureum, often known as Elephant grass or Napier grass, makes a great contour hedgerow as well as bank and pasture feed. Used for firebreaks, windbreaks, and bio-oil, biogas, and charcoal production. Other worth reading articles for you – 1) State of PhD in India 2) Love-hate relationship among mosquitoes towards light

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google doodle today 8 November 2021

Google doodle today 8 November 2021, Kamal Ranadive

Google doodle honours Indian cell biologist on birth anniversary To commemorate the 104th birthday of Indian cell biologist Dr. Kamal Ranadive (1917-2001), google created a google doodle today 8 November 2021. Ranadive is most recognised for her innovative cancer research and dedication to using science and education to create a more fair society. Dr. Ranadive is shown looking through a microscope in the doodle, which was created by India-based artist Ibrahim Rayintakath. Kamal Samarath, sometimes known as Kamal Ranadive, was born in the Indian city of Pune in 1917. Ranadive’s father encouraged her to pursue a medical degree, but she chose biology instead. While working as a researcher at the Indian Cancer Research Center in 1949, she earned a doctorate in cytology, the study of cells. She returned to Mumbai and the ICRC after a fellowship at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, where she developed the country’s first tissue culture laboratory. Kamal Ranadive research on cancer and leprosy Ranadive was one of the first researchers in India to propose a relationship between breast cancer and genetics, as well as to establish correlations between cancers and particular viruses, as the director of the ICRC and a pioneer in animal modelling of cancer development. Ranadive worked on developing a vaccine for Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterium that causes leprosy. Kamal Ranadive Awards In 1982, Kamal received the Padma Bhushan (India’s third highest civilian award) for his contributions to medicine. She received the Medical Council of India’s first Silver Jubilee Research Award in 1964. A gold medal and a cash prize of Rs15,000 were included in this award. She also received the G. J. Watumull Foundation Prize in Microbiology in 1964.She was an Indian Council of Medical Research Emeritus Medical Scientist (ICMR).

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WHO approves first antimalarial drug Mosquirix

First antimalarial drug Mosquirix The World Health Organisation (WHO) has approved the first antimalarial vaccine RTS, S/AS01 (Mosquirix™) in the world. The World Health Organization has finally approved the world’s first antimalarial drug. Why is this such a big deal? Well, I’ll tell you why, every two minutes a child dies of malaria and this vaccine can save that child and millions of others. The vaccine is called RTS,S (trade name Mosquirix), it is 40% effective and that too not against all types of malaria parasites. This vaccine targets the parasite that’s most common in Africa- Plasmodium falciparum. It’s a 4 dose vaccine with all doses given between the 5th and the 18th month of a child. How long did it take for the World Health Organisation to recommend this vaccine? The European Medicines Agency authorized it in 2015 but the WHO sat on it for six years. How long did the development of an antimalarial drug take? Centuries. Malaria has been claiming lives since the Mesopotamian civilization. In the 20th century alone malaria claimed nearly 300 million lives. Malaria was not the priority of western countries? Then why did it take so long to develop a vaccine? Was science not in its favour? Well, the problem was not science, the problem was with lack of political desire. You see research needs money and push but the countries devastated by malaria are the world’s poorest mostly African countries where a lot of families cannot even afford a mosquito net. Malaria was not the priority of the West. Let us talk some numbers, there are 229 million cases of malaria every year 94% of these cases are reported in Africa. The continent records more than 400,000 malaria deaths every year and most of these victims are children. Outside Africa, less than 90,000 people lose their lives to malaria every year so the world chooses to not care. Malaria vs Wuhan virus vaccine In contrast, consider the Wuhan virus it affects rich countries too. In 2020 the western world was suffering, the economy was suffering so companies deep-dived into research and governments poured billions of dollars to create vaccines on priority. The US alone donated $9 billion for COVID development in 2020. What about the malaria vaccine the entire world pulled together $7.3 billion in malaria research from 2007 to 2018 that’s less than a billion dollars every year. Yes, the malaria parasite is more complicated than the Wuhan virus but the story for the extremely delayed development of a malaria vaccine does not end there. The truth is that a malaria vaccine has never really been a priority. We saw how the covid vaccine smashed all records, we were rolling out doses at speed one couldn’t imagine in the pharmaceutical world. The world made not one not two more than 22 Wuhan virus vaccines in 20 months. Seven of them have already been given emergency use authorization by the World Health Organisation, 124 others are in clinical development stage 194 in preclinical trial and this is not a cooked up story, it’s the data from WHO. What explains the speed is that the vaccine makers, the approvers, the donors all had the required incentive. These vaccines had a market, a malaria vaccine does not have a market this big. Africa is a continent of 1.3 billion people that’s the population of India. Demand for a malaria vaccine is concentrated in just sub-Saharan Africa. WHO estimates say there could be a requirement of 110 million doses per year by 2036 that’s not a big market not big enough for pharma giants to book their resources. There is also not enough money to be made with the sale of each dose. GSK partners with Bharat bioetch in the production of first antimalarial drug GSK or GlaxoSmithKline the company producing the malaria vaccine has said that it will price the jab at 5% above the cost of production. 15 million annual doses will be produced for now and these vaccines will also be made in India. GSK has partnered with India’s Bharat biotech. Another vaccine called R21 is in stage three of clinical trials, it is being developed by Oxford University it will be made by the serum institute of India. Conclusion That’s all very well but could all of this have been fast-tracked? had malaria overwhelmed in the hospitals of New York, Italy, Spain or China perhaps the story would have been different and we sincerely hope it doesn’t spread to these parts. That’s not what we’re saying what we’re trying to say is that malaria for Africa is worse than covid. Malaria killed 386,000 Africans in 2019 the Wuhan virus killed 212,000 in the last 18 months. Because all of this is happening in Africa it never makes it to the headlines but now that we know how fast vaccines can be developed let’s try to not be blinded by profit. The world should apply this urgency to develop vaccines for other diseases too. Vaccines are a lifesaver and we have come a long way, we defeated smallpox, polio but there is still no long term vaccine for tuberculosis, West Nile, Zika, HIV, the malaria vaccine we say is a great start but there’s a long way to go. Suggested content to read 1. The love-hate relationship of mosquito towards the light 2. State of PhD in India

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